The field of mobile application development has experienced growth in the years with both Android and iOS platforms witnessing substantial expansion. Consequently, the programming languages utilized for creating apps on these platforms have also undergone advancements. This article will explore the top ten popular and widely used programming languages for Android and iOS development.
Java is considered to be one of the programming languages that is extensively utilized in modern times, particularly for Android development. Since the beginning of the Android platform, Java has been the go-to language. The code written in Java operates within a machine (either Dalvik or ART). It is compiled into bytecode that can be executed on any device. Java is known for its object-oriented nature, reliability, and portability, and it boasts a community and a wide range of frameworks supporting it.
Swift serves as the language for developing applications on iOS, watchOS, tvOS, and macOS. It came into existence in 2014 as a successor to Objective C. Swift is a programming language that encompasses paradigms and emphasizes both performance and code clarity. Notable features of Swift include the use of options to prevent pointer exceptions, generics, type inference, and automatic memory management (ARC). Moreover, Swift code is known for its clarity and conciseness when compared to Objective C.
Since its support by Google in 2017, Kotlin has rapidly emerged as one of the leading languages for Android development. It is a typed language that operates on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) and seamlessly integrates with Java. This enables Android developers to transition their existing java code to Kotlin smoothly. Kotlin offers benefits such as null safety, concurrency support, and a more streamlined syntax than Java. Additionally, Kotlin code tends to have bugs and crashes, making it a preferred choice for developers working on Android applications.
C++ is a programming language that is widely used for purposes including performance applications like game development and operating systems. In the domain, C++ is used in developing low-level system software such as drivers, runtime libraries, and game engines. It offers performance compared to higher-level languages like Java or Kotlin. Additionally, C++ code can be seamlessly integrated with languages like Java/Kotlin for Android and Objective C/Swift for iOS.
Objective C is the programming language that Apple uses for developing iOS applications. It is a version of ANSI C with added features for object-oriented programming. Objective C is widely used in iOS development mainly when working with codebases. It enables developers to combine object-oriented and procedural approaches seamlessly. However, Swift has become the language for iOS app development, gradually replacing Objective C.
Python is a high-level, general-purpose programming language known for clear, readable syntax and extensive standard library. On mobile, it is commonly used for backend development, scripting, automation, machine learning, and AI. Python code can interface with languages like Java/Kotlin and Objective-C/Swift using libraries like Kivy and PyQt. Python is useful for proto-mobile before porting logic to native languages.
Microsoft created the multi-paradigm programming language C#, which utilizes the NET framework. Applications for Android, iOS, macOS, Windows, and the web are created using it. C# is the main language used by well-known cross-platform frameworks like Xamarin and Unity to create native mobile apps. Each target platform’s native machine code is generated from C# code.
PHP is a widely used open-source scripting language primarily used for web development. On mobile, it is commonly used to build API services that interact with mobile apps. PHP code can be run on the web to provide data and services to web and mobile clients built using other languages.
Ruby is a dynamic, general-purpose, object-oriented scripting language focusing on simplicity, productivity, and enjoyment. On mobile, Ruby is to build backends and APIs through frameworks like Rails. It can also be used with libraries like RubyMotion to native iOS and iOS.