N/APosted on - 06/02/2011
It's my first time to enroll a class of CISCO subject. Yesterday was actually my first day in school and the first task that the professor given to us is to calculate and to set up IP address and subnet mask in networking concept. Before I go to school i need to know the facts about networking specially IP address and sub netting. Do you have some idea and knowledge about networking?
Can you help me by explaining on how to deal with networking? I love networking that’s why I intended study the subject. Posts your ideas here and really love to read and understand it thanks!
How to deal with Ip address and subnet
IP Addressing and Subnetting,
In order to understand the concept of IP addressing you must know first what an IP address is. An IP (Internet Protocol) address is a unique 32-bit number assigned to a device which involves in a network.
It is normally expressed in dotted-decimal format, with four numbers separated by periods, such as 192.168.1.1. Sometimes, it is also expressed in binary numbers, and divided into four octets ( 4 groups of 8 bits ). The value in each number (octet) ranges from 0 to 255 decimal or (00000000-11111111 in binary).
There are 5 different classes of IP address, Class A, B, C, D, and E. The most common are only the first three classes. In a Class A address, the first 8 bits or octet refers to the network portion, so a Class A has a network address of 220.127.116.11 – 127.255.255.255.
In a Class B address, the first two octets or 16 bits refers to the network portion, so the Class B has a network address of 18.104.22.168 – 22.214.171.124. The Class C has a network address of 192.0.0.0 – 126.96.36.199 since the first three octets or 24 bits refers to the network portion.
Subnetting is the process of dividing a certain network into subnetwork. It helps us make multiple logical networks that exist within a single Class A, B, or C network. The subnet mask is used in order to determine whether a host is on the local subnet or on a remote network.
There are different reasons why we need to do subnetting. First, we need to divide a large network into small networks in order to reduce traffic.
Another is, to connect networks across different areas. Third is, in order to connect different topologies using routers. Lastly, is to avoid physical limitations like the maximum length of the cable that we have to use or the maximum number of computers that need to be connected.
In subnetting a network, the natural mask is extended using some of the bits from the host ID portion of the address in order to create a subnetwork ID. For example, given a Class C network of 221.045.071.000 which has a mask of 255.255.255.0, you can create subnet in the manner shown below:
11011101.00101101.01000111.00000000 221.045.071.000 Class C IP Address
11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 255.255.255.000 Class C Subnet Mask
11011101.00101101.01000111.00000000 221.045.071.000 Network Address
In order to get the network address, we must perform a bitwise logical AND operation between the IP address and the subnet mask.
Each class has its own default subnet mask.
For Class A- (decimal)255.0.0.0 or (binary) 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000
For Class B- (decimal)255.255.0.0 or (binary) 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000
For Class C- (decimal)255.255.255.0 or (binary) 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000
How to deal with Ip address and subnet
Computer network is used for communications from computer to a different computer, sharing data, files, pictures by the use of a networking device. This will interconnect to open communication channels allowing the same computer share files.
There are different type of networking, Bus, Star, Ring, Mesh network this either thru LAN, WAN or MWAN.
By the use of Mac address allows your computer connects to the network through network adapter using it's unique identifier designated by the server.
This address is the medium of communication allowing computer to the network with out conflicting the same name, or IP address.
Each computer generate address by assigning 3-octet prefixes to equipment created. This list of fixes is available through public. Router for example has it's own generating IP address assigned to each and every computer connected. This identify each of them as unique to prevent conflict.
A good example of this is 192.168.1.100 is the main computer, and second (2nd) computer gets IP address by adding +1 at the end of the first assigned address.
Switch uses Mac address that auto-generate by the network assigned to each and every computer connected allowing computer communicates with the network.