Microcontrollers are a small computer on single integrated circuit or it is a system on a chip. Microcontrollers are also known as robot engines. Robot engines are the microcontrollers that are robot’s brain.
It consists of one or more processing cores accompanied with memory and programmable factors. A required program is installed on the chip. A robot engine works as per the instructions installed on the chip, whichever work is to be done, it is installed in the form of a program on the chip. Once the work is done, or there is a need to change or intensify the initial serviceability, one must install a new or an up to date program, or a set of instructions on the chip for the completion of the desired work.
A microcontroller is far better than the microprocessors. The major difference between a microcontroller and microprocessor is the presence of external peripheral, the microcontrollers have RAM, ROM, and EEPROM in it while we have to use an external circuit or we can say external circuits in case of microprocessors. All the peripherals of microcontrollers are on just one single chip; it is compact while on the other hand microprocessor is quite immense.
The developers of the microcontrollers centralize on a low energy demand. The reason is that mobile applications can work for a longer time that uses batteries. Microcontrollers consist of peripherals, which initiate associations or connections between the microcontroller and other computers and help control conditions.
Microcontrollers are used in the products that are controlled automatically. Microcontrollers have a wide range of use in today’s world. Microcontrollers are used in household appliances such as Tv sets, Microwave ovens, etc. It is also used in power tools, automobile engine control system, etc. The best example of a microcontroller is remote controls. A remote control is an electronic device that is used to operate the device wirelessly from an appropriate distance.
Robotics includes mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, computer science and others as it is a branch of engineering and science. It deals with the construction, depiction, action and use of robots.
These technologies are used to create machines that can be replaced for humans. Robots can also be used for different purposes. Robots reduce the human efforts and make the work easy. Robots can be sent to very dangerous places where the human cannot survive. They are more accurate in their work than humans.
Will robots inherit the Earth? Dependency on robots is increasing day by day. They can ruin people’s lives by taking their jobs away from them.
MICROCONTROLLERS IN ROBOTICS:
Due to the wide range of use of robotics or due to the scope, it is also known as hobby robotics. These systems are simple, and it is viable to assemble it without the help of others. One can easily build up this system alone.
The common microcontrollers used up in hobby robotics are:
1. Atmel AVR microcontrollers.
2. Microchip Technology PIC microcontrollers.
3. Microcontrollers based on ARM technology.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MICROCONTROLLERS:
There is no doubt in the statement that, “Microcontrollers are inexpensive.” This is due to the reason that microcontrollers are fully integrated onto just one chip and these devices are manufactured at a very low cost, hence affordable.
There are many other advantages of microcontrollers, microcontrollers are flexible, and there are special types of processor chips which are so small and flexible. One of the best advantages of microcontrollers is that it saves human effort. Microcontrollers have the ability to perform many tasks repetitively.
As we know, nothing is perfect here. So, a microcontroller has its negative side too. Along with its advantages, there are several disadvantages too. The biggest disadvantage is its complex architecture. The architecture of the microcontroller is much more complex than the microprocessor. Due to this, understanding its functionality is somewhat difficult. And again due to its complexity, the development time gets increased.
So knowing all these specification and features of microcontrollers we can easily identify the best one we need. The microcontrollers are only the brain of the robot for making a successful robot you’ll need some more specific parts such as cables, wires, connectors, power system, motors and actuators, LCD and display, Interface adapter and converter, etc.