What kind of errors are undetectable by the checksum

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i need answer of this question answer should be proper. What kind of errors are undetectable by the checksum?

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Answered By 0 points N/A #96354

What kind of errors are undetectable by the checksum

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Hello,

This is useful for you.

At least three types of error will not be detected by the current checksum calculation. First, if two data items are exchanged during transmission, the sum and checksum values do not change.

Secondly, if the value of a datum is increased (intentionally or maliciously) and diminishes the value of another (intentionally or maliciously) the same amount, the sum and the checksum can not detect these changes.

Thirdly, if you change one or more data elements in such a way that the change is a multiple of 216 − 1, the sum or checksum can not detect changes.

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Answered By 0 points N/A #96356

What kind of errors are undetectable by the checksum

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The checksum is a simple method used to detect eventual errors in data transmission. In a simple form, it is calculated as a binary sum of all the data included in a block or packet, by using an algorithm.

Changes in the data are supposed to lead to another checksum, different from the initial one.

However, there are some categories of such changes that simply cannot be detected by this method.

They include, but are not limited to changes in the order of the bytes of information, insertion or deletion of zero–valued bytes, or accumulation of multiple errors that compensate each other.

Therefore, more complex algorithms are required for a safe transmission.

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