A network is a connection of a number of computer and devices to facilitate the exchange of data. Networking is one of the most important features in the IT world; the concept facilitates sharing and communication thus promoting business as well as relations among a number of people. Before anyone thinks of, networking him or her to have the basic knowledge of the requirements and what it entails. These requirements are referred to as networking concepts.
In the connections or the network any one of the devices is assumed to be a node and contains a unique address used for identification. The address is usually numeric for easy computation by the computer although quite difficult for humans to remember. An example of an address is; 188.8.131.52. The address is given according to classes. However there are networks which give names that humans can be able to remember for example http://www.techyv.com/ which corresponds to the numeric values of the address.
An internet address is one of the addresses that contain 4 bytes which are separated by periods i. e. for network address, the host machine. There is an organization which allocates address ranges that corresponds to the network. This organization is known as InterNIC Register. There are a number of factors which are used to allocate including host, department, organization or enterprise and also the geographical area. Domain name is another networking concept that should be put into account. They are also referred to as mnemonic textual addresses and their function is to enable manipulation of the internet address.
Domain name server (DNS) translates the textual internet addresses into hard numeric internet addresses. Ports are other networking concepts which facilitate the process of networking. An IP address is responsible of identifying a host machine in the internet while the IP port identifies a specific application that runs on the internet host machine. The port is usually identified using a number referred to as port number. The number of ports may be several and varying according to the application.
The next concept to be looked at is the data transmission which is normally done by packet switching. This concept follows that a message is broken into packets before being sent from one computer to another. Each packet has a header as well as data area and it also has a definite maximum size. The header has source and destination computer addresses as well as sequencing information which are responsible or reassembling the message at the destination. Another networking concept is the type of network and the two broad categories are wide Local Area Network and Wide Area Network.
Local Area Network consist of buildings or a set of closely related building while the latter covers bigger geographical regions like cities, countries or even continents. Wide area network is usually based on packer switching while local area network is based on Ethernet, token ring and FDDI. To construct a network a number of equipment are required. This is also an important networking concept that facilitates networking. The equipment includes a bridge, a router, a gateway and also a modem which is not very necessary. Networking concepts are most important aspects to be considered by an organization before the development of a network is carried out.