The basic function of a computer is based on electrical circuit. We provide input in form of electrical signal and thus we get output in form of electrical
Electrical signals are basically of two types: Analog and Digital. Analog signals are continuous and Digital signals are discrete in nature.
Electronic devices working on Analog signals are Analog devices and those which works on Digital signals are Digital devices. In modern time most of the computers are digital computers.
Computer devices may work on positive or negative logics. In positive logic there two levels. One is high level (e.g. 5V or 12V) and the other is low level (which is 0V). As computer devices are electronic devices we have to deal with it in form of voltage levels i.e. high level and low level. It is difficult for us to deal with it. Computer technology has developed a lot in last half century. Earlier computers were huge, their storage capacity used to be less and power consumption was very high. Today’s computer has more power, more memory but it consumes very less amount of energy.
A computer designer performs a very difficult task. He/she has to watch a problem very carefully and then develop a machine that can solve that problem. It includes functional design, logic design and implementation of both. While looking at the process of computer design computer organization and architecture both comes into picture.
A computer can be described by the four level of abstraction namely central processing unit, input unit, output unit and memory unit. In small computer we don’t worry about input/output unit we just worry about central processing unit and memory unit. In central processing unit there is arithmetic and logic unit which solves arithmetical and logical problems. Main memory is the storage. There are location define in a computer’s main memory. The amount of memory is defined by locations in the memory. For example: A memory of 16*4 implies that there are 16 locations and each location can store 4 bits of information. The operations include Read and Write operations. Read operation is reading data from main memory to CPU registers and Write operation is writing data from CPU registers to main memory. These are the basic components of and their working in computer.